Women sitting at a desk, rubbing her eyes
Women sitting at a desk, rubbing her eyes

Eye Conditions Overview

Many eye conditions have no early symptoms. They may be painless, and you may see no change in your vision until they have advanced.

The single best way to protect your vision is through regular professional eye examinations. Of course, between examinations, if you notice a change in your vision or you think your eye may be injured in any way, contact an eye doctor immediately.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the physical disturbance of the center of the retina called the macula. It is the leading cause of vision loss in people 50 years of age and older.

Bulging Eyes
Exophthalmos, also known as proptosis, is the medical term for bulging or protruding eyes, which can occur as a result of several underlying conditions—most often thyroid eye disease (or Graves ophthalmology). This occurs when one or both eyes protrude from the eye sockets due to swelling of the muscles, fat and tissue behind the eye.

A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens of the eye that gradually occurs. Most cataracts are age-related and result from normal eye changes as one gets older.

Cataracts in Babies
In rare cases, children are born with or develop pediatric (or congenital) cataracts in the first few years of life.

CMV Retinitis
CMV retinitis is a serious viral infection of the retina that often affects people with AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and otherwise compromised immune systems.

Color Blindness
Color blindness is not actually blindness in the true sense but rather is a color vision deficiency—people who are affected by it can usually see colors but have difficulty distinguishing between certain colors.

Crossed Eyes (Strabismus)
Crossed eyes (or strabismus) occur when a person's eyes are not able to align on the same point at the same time and appear to be misaligned or pointed in different directions. Strabismus develops most often in babies and is easier to correct when caught early.

Diabetic Macular Edema
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a severe complication of diabetic retinopathy that is caused by an accumulation of fluid, protein and lipids in the macula. Patients with DME typically experience blurred vision, which can be severe.

Eye Floaters + Eye Flashes
Floaters are small specks or clouds that move across your field of vision—especially when you are looking at a bright, plain background, like a blank wall or a cloudless blue sky. Eye flashes can look like flashing lights or lightning streaks in your field of vision.

Eyelid Twitching
Eyelid twitches (or spasms) are involuntary muscle movements that happen in one or both eyelids. Most common eyelid twitches are harmless, minor and do not affect your vision.

Glaucoma occurs when a buildup of fluid in the eye creates pressure, damaging the optic nerve. If left untreated, glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss and, in the worst case, blindness.

Keratoconus occurs when the cornea in the front of the eye, which normally is round, becomes thin and cone shaped. As a result, one’s vision becomes blurry and distorted, making tasks such as reading or driving difficult.

Lazy Eye (Amblyopia)
Commonly known as lazy eye, amblyopia is poor vision in an eye that does not receive adequate use and should be addressed in early childhood.

Low Vision
Few individuals are totally without sight. When ordinary glasses or contact lenses don't produce clear vision, you are considered to have low vision.

Ocular Hypertension
Ocular hypertension is an increase in pressure in the eye that is above the range considered normal. Individuals diagnosed with ocular hypertension have an increased risk of developing glaucoma.

Retinal Detachment
When the retina detaches, the light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye becomes separated from the nerve tissue and blood supply underneath it. While painless, retinal detachment is a medical emergency that can cause vision loss if left untreated.

Uveitis is the inflammation of the inside of the eye, specifically affecting one or more of the three parts of the eye that make up the uvea. It is a treatable condition; however, without proper treatment, it can cause vision loss.